THE CONCEPT OF RISK

While discussing the difference between saving and investing, it was suggested that “risk” influenced where the money was “stored”.  So, let’s explore what risk is.
Simply stated, when talking about investing, risk means that the asset could lose value … that it would not be sufficient to pay what it is needed for.  But, simple never really tells the whole story, does it?  For this reason, let’s take a little deeper look at the kinds of risk that an investor has to face.
•        Credit Risk – also known as default risk, this is the possibility that someone to whom money has been loaned will not be able to repay the debt as promised.  This risk is most common when someone has purchased bonds.  Example:  you have loaned money to a friend.  When the day on which the loan was to be repaid, your friend tells you that he/she does not have the money and cannot repay you as promised.
•        Interest Rate Risk – this is another risk faced by someone who has purchased a bond.  It is the risk that the lender has tied up his or her money in a loan paying a low interest rate and, when interest rates rise, the lender will not have that cash available to lend at the higher, more profitable, interest rate.  Example:  you have loaned money to someone at 5% interest.  This was all the money you had available to loan.  Now, someone else approaches you and states that, if you will loan them money, they will pay you 6% interest.  Since this would be a profitable business deal, you would like to make the loan.  However, you have not yet been repaid by the first borrower so you are unable to make the more profitable loan.
•        Market Risk – this risk can be faced by someone who has either invested in stocks or bonds.  It is the risk that you will not be able to sell something for at least as much as much as you bought it for; or, the item cannot be sold at a profit.  Example:  you bought an asset for $5,000 and, now, no one will pay you more than $4,000 for that same item.
•       Liquidity Risk – this risk can affect anyone who buys any asset; stocks, bonds, real estate, any asset.  This is the risk that your asset cannot be turned into cash when cash is needed.  Example:  ten years ago, you purchased trading cards that you hoped would go up in value.  Today, you find out that these cards are no longer considered valuable and no one will buy them from you.
•       Inflation Risk – this may be one of the most insidious risks people face because it means that money won’t buy as much in the future as it buys now.  Example:  imagine that you had a $100 bill ten years ago.  Because you knew that you would need it and could not afford to lose it, you had it sealed in a can and buried it in the back yard.  You clearly marked the point where it was buried and guarded it to ensure that no one dug it up and stole it from you.  To understand the impact of inflation risk, ask yourself how many bags of groceries you could have purchased with that $100 bill ten years ago; then, ask how many sacks you could fill with that same bill if you took it to the store today.
Clearly, there are different kinds of risk and there are steps that can be taken to protect yourself against those risks.  Managing risk is a topic that we will explore in another article.

Comments

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